Marchalina Hellenica and the pine forests of Sfakia

Detail of a pine tree infested with Marchalina hellenica

Those of you that have been visiting the Lefka Ori of Sfakia and especially if you have been walking from Anopolis towards Mouri and the higher mountain peaks or towards Agios Ioannis and from there in other directions such as Selouda and down to Agios Pavlos and Agia Roumeli, you would not have failed to see the large number of pine trees that are dying or are already dead. You most probably would have noticed a white fluffy substance covering most branches, even the trunk of the trees in many instances. This is the impact of a scale insect, the Marchalina hellenica that produces a substance that honey bees collect for the production of honey.

Honey producers have been known to artificially infest pine trees which then provide the food that their bees gather for producing honey. This is a far more productive process as compared with the bees gathering food from wild flowers over a far more extended area. The end result is more honey for the producers at the longer term ecological cost to the pine forests and a deteriorating quality of the product. Anyone that has tasted real thyme honey would be able to tell the difference between that and what some times is referred to as pine honey.

Honey producers have been resisting over the years the spraying of diseased trees on the basis that this will kill their bees although the authorities have determined ecological organic sprays that would not harm the environment. You have the usual situation of short term gain as against the longer term ecological damage that in itself would also destroy, in the longer term, the benefit that honey producers gain today.

After years of indecision it appears that some action might be taken, but as with political issues of this type, it may take some time before we will see some effective action. As part of the EU “SylvaMED: Mediterranean Forests for All” initiative a conference was held at Anopolis in 2012, titled “The pine forests of Anopolis / Agios Ioannis and honey production” aimed at informing honey producers on ways to improve their activity and proposals relating to the management of Marchalina hellenica.


Dead pine tree near Anopolis


As a result of this conference, there was an announcement that a study had been commissioned to assess the damage that has been caused to the pine forests in the area, the dangers of spreading in nearby areas and the related danger of fires from the dead pine trees that could spread further away from the affected areas, including into the Samaria protected area.

Certainly this is a very political issue and I don’t see it being resolved very soon. Personally I am on the side of Sfakian thyme honey!

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